THE OLD WAR HORSE
THE VOICE OF GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET CAMP #1247, SONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 7, SEPTEMBER, 2006
Remembered by most civil war historians as the surgeon who amputated Stonewall Jackson's arm in a vain attempt to save the courageous general, Hunter Holmes McGuire is remembered by his fellow Virginians as one of the most important medical doctors of his day. Born on October 11, 1835 to Hugh and Eliza McGuire in Winchester, Virginia, Hunter was destined to become a surgeon. His father was a prominent eye surgeon and from an early age the elder McGuire instilled the knowledge and talent of a successful surgeon to his son. Young McGuire studied medicine at Winchester Medical College and in 1855 left his hometown to continue his studies at the University of Pennsylvania and Jefferson College in Pennsylvania. After a year of study McGuire was forced to return home after a severe attack of rheumatism. Once back home he soon got a job teaching anatomy at his alma mater until 1858 when he was compelled to return to Philadelphia to resume his studies. Being a southerner in a northern city McGuire was no doubt sensitive to the issues of the times leading up to the War Between the States. When John Brown's body was taken through Philadelphia a great backlash against southerners was waged and many sons of the south were compelled to leave the city for their homes down south. By that time Hunter had saved nearly $2000 from teaching and was able to organize and pay the fares for some 300 students to travel to Richmond. Upon leaving Philadelphia, the young men moved in one huge body and were well armed in order to protect themselves from any violence they may have encountered before leaving the city. Once in Richmond, the young men were greeted with great jubilation having Governor Wise giving a great speech and the City of Richmond reimbursing the fares for all the students. Dr. McGuire arranged for their courses to be completed at the Medical College of Virginia. After this he taught for a brief period at Tulane University in New Orleans. In 1861 he joined the "The Winchester Rifles" (Company F 2nd Virginia Infantry) as a private. It was soon realized his services were much more valuable as a doctor so he was made a brigade surgeon and was ordered to report to General Jackson at Harper's Ferry. At first Jackson was skeptical about McGuire's ability due to his youth, but the two became very close friends as the war progressed. Dr. McGuire treated General Jackson after the First Battle of Manassas, the same battle in which the general was immortalized as "Stonewall." As you probably know, during that battle, Jackson raised his left hand above his head to encourage the troops. While in this position his middle finger was struck by a ball and broken. He remained upon the field "'till the fight was over" wanting to take part in the pursuit, but was instead ordered back to the hospital by the commanding general. On his way to the rear he was in so much pain that he stopped at the first hospital he came to. The surgeon proposed to cut the finger off, but, while the doctor looked for his instruments, and for a moment turned his back, Stonewall silently mounted his horse and rode off to see McGuire who was busily engaged treating the wounded. He refused treatment until "his turn came." McGuire was able to save the finger leaving it only slightly deformed. In 1862, McGuire was promoted to chief surgeon of Jackson's Corps, serving under its Medical Director, Dr. Lafayette Guild In May of 1863 when Jackson was fatally wounded by friendly fire near Chancellorsville Dr. McGuire amputated his left arm in an attempt to save his life. Jackson died of pneumonia a few days later. McGuire recorded his last words as: "Let us cross over the river and rest beneath the shade of the trees." Jackson's death affected McGuire greatly. He would always remember Jackson with the deepest reverence and served as a pallbearer in Stonewall's funeral. After the death of General Jackson, McGuire served as chief surgeon of the Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia under Lieutenant-General Ewell. After defeating Milroy at Winchester they were engaged at Gettysburg. Surgeon McGuire afterwards acted as Medical Director of the Army of the Valley under the command of Lieutenant-General Jubal Early at Lynchburg. He served during the Valley Campaign as Early moved down through Frederick City and Monocacy, almost reaching Washington. He was also at Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Waynesboro, where he was captured, paroled for fifteen days and then released. He rejoined the 2nd Corps under General Gordon, and remained as Medical Director till the surrender at Appomattox. Following the war McGuire settled in Richmond where he became Chairman of Surgery at the Medical College of Virginia. He married Mary Stuart of Staunton in 1867. They had ten children, many of who followed in his footsteps into medicine. They maintained a summer residence just west of Richmond in Bon Air. Dr. McGuire was president of the American Medical Association and many other organizations. He founded St. Luke's Hospital and Training School for Nurses, helped found the Medical Society of Virginia, and in 1893, he started the College of Physicians and Surgeons, later University College of Medicine. In 1904 Dr. Hunter Holmes McGuire was immortalized by a statue by William Couper that was placed on the grounds of the Capitol, two blocks from his beloved hospital. It reads: Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D., L.L.D. President of the American Medical and of the American Surgical Associations; Founder of the University College of Medicine, Medical Director, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. An Eminent Civil and Military Surgeon and Beloved Physician. An Able Teacher and Vigorous Writer; A Useful Citizen and Broad Humanitarian, Gifted in Mind and Generous in Heart, This Monument is Erected by his Many Friends. The Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center is named in his honor. It was the first Virginia hospital to perform heart transplants. Hunter McGuire was a truly gifted individual. He was a talented surgeon, a highly gifted and competent doctor, a superb teacher, an outstanding orator, a brilliant administrator, and a prolific author. It was once said that he treated his patients "like a husband pondering the problems of the sick wife; the father looking down on the afflicted child." His contributions to Virginia, the Confederacy, the United States, and medicine as a whole cannot be overlooked. Taylor
We extend our sympathy to the family of former Longstreet Camp member William Wheeler Jones, Sr., who passed Sunday, August 20 at the age of 91. Bill joined our Camp many years ago and remained a member until early 2002. Jerold Evans offered Bill rides to our meetings, but Bill had reached the point where he preferred not to go out at night. Bill loved to do research about The War and was generous in sharing his findings with fellow Camp members. Our Camp continues to add new members. John C. Thompson, Sr. has moved back to Richmond and transferred his Camp membership to Longstreet, along with his out of town sons, Brian and Clayton. We have received from General Headquarters the membership certificate of John's Richmond son John C. Thompson, Jr., whom we hope to induct at a future meeting. The Thompsons' ancestor is Corporal James Edward Jennings of Dance's Battery, Powhatan Artillery, 1st Virginia Artillery. Another family has brought us two members. The transfer applications of SCV life members A. S. Bolling Knowles and Peter I. C. Knowles, III, sons of Peter Knowles II, have been processed at GHQ. Their ancestor, Bartlett Bolling, served in Companies C and D of the 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry, better known as Mosby's Partisan Rangers. Sam Craghead has rejoined the SCV and chosen to make Longstreet his home camp. Sam's ancestor is Private Thomas Benton Gilbert of Company D, Milton's Battalion, a Missouri unit. Gilbert was a courier and scout for General Sterling Price. We heartily welcome these seven men to the Longstreet Camp. Congratulations to Hayes Huff, who earned his degree in construction management from J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College in the spring. Hayes has moved to Norfolk to take advantage of an employment opportunity. We shall miss him. Wasn't it great to see the picture and story about the Matthew Fontaine Maury statue in the August 17 Richmond Times-Dispatch? I emailed my thanks to the writer and, per his response to my offer, sent him information about Maury used in my Men of Statue slide presentation. The T-D has come a long way since its 1999 map showing the locations of the Monument Avenue statues, which map omitted Maury's statue. New information is constantly coming to my attention which improves my Monument Avenue presentation. Often this comes from the audience. A member of another SCV Camp brought to my attention the fact that Arthur Ashe served in the United States Army. This means that every man on the Avenue served in the military forces of the United States. The Army assigned him where his skills could be utilized, sending him to the United States Military Academy to be assistant tennis coach. The Army also allowed him to play in tennis tournaments while he served. September 1 is the scheduled release date for Richard G. Williams, Jr.'s Stonewall Jackson: The Black Man's Friend. Bud Robertson's foreword says, "Exhaustively researched, teeming with useful nuggets.The narrative surprises and informs, memorializes and inspires, all at the same time." Mr. Williams wrote in the May 6, 2006 Civil War page of the Washington Times about the founder of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church of Roanoke, which church has a Stonewall Jackson stained glass window. An email from author Williams says there's a picture of the window in his book. Many thanks to all Camp members who have paid dues for the fiscal year which began August 1. Particular thanks are due to those who sent in a contribution to the Old War Horse along with their dues. Membership cards for paid members will be distributed at the September 19 meeting. The portions of dues owed to General Headquarters ($20.00) and to Virginia Division ($10.00) have been mailed for all who've paid. I sincerely request that those who haven't paid mail your check to me or bring it to the September 19 meeting. Dues amount for a regular member is $ 45.00. My home address is 2524 Hawkesbury Court, Richmond, VA 23233-2426. I hope you're having a good summer and look forward to seeing you in September. Walter
ROMA'S RESTAURANT 8330 STAPLES MILL RD. LOCATED IN "THE SHOPS AT STAPLES MILL" TURN LEFT AT FIRST STOPLIGHT NORTH OF THE WISTAR SHOPPING CENTER DINNER - SOCIAL 6:00 PM MEETING STARTS AT 7:00 PM
Our speaker for September will be Commander Dana Jackson of the Stuart's Horse Artillery #1784, Floyd County, Virginia. His subject will be "Confederates Who Served in the Subsequent Indian Wars and in the Spanish-American War." Be sure to come to give a hearty Longstreet welcome to our Compatriot from this great group, whose home is the Southwest of Virginia. His presentation should be very interesting.
Our Adjutant, Walter Tucker, gave a very interesting presentation on the American Civil War Navy during our July meeting. The American navy was well behind the times at the time of the civil war. With the last naval warfare taking place during the War of 1812, the country's war ships were ill equipped to fight a war on the scale of upcoming war. During the period of 1861-1865 American naval warfare took giant leaps in advancement due to the necessities of the times. Rifled cannons, submarines, iron clad ships and torpedoes were only a few areas of advancement in naval technology. As with most things, a competitive environment leads to innovation. This innovation gave the American Navy an edge over other world powers and helped America become the superpower it is today. Taylor
2005-2007 CAMP OFFICERS LONGSTREET CAMP #1247Commander: Taylor Cowardin 356-9625 1st. Lt. Cmdr.: William F. Shumadine, III 285-4044 2nd Lt. Cmdr.: Michael Kidd 270-9651 Adjutant/Treasurer: Walter Tucker 360-7247 Judge Advocate: Richard B. Campbell 278-6488 Quartermaster: R. Preston Nuttall 276-8977 Chaplain: Henry V. Langford 474-1978
PUBLICATIONSWebmaster: Gary F. Cowardin 262-0534 Website: longstreetscv.org War Horse: David P. George 353-8392
The following is a cumulative listing of contributors to the upkeep of “The Old War Horse” for the period July, 2005 through the current month. As you know, our cumulative listing starts in July of each year. Ben Baird Harry Boyd Lloyd Brooks Brian Cowardin Clint Cowardin Gary Cowradin Ron Cowardin Taylor Cowardin Raymond Crews* Jerold Evans Kitty Faglie* Richard Faglie* David George Charles Howard Chris Jewett John Kane Frank Marks Lewis Mills Joe Moschetti* John Moschetti Preston Nuttall* Ken Parsons Joey Seay Bill Setzer Austin Thomas David Thomas Walter Tucker* John Vial* David Ware Harold Whitmore* Hugh Williams Joe Wright In Memory of Chuck Walton-Anonymous In Memory of Chuck Walton-Ben Baird In Memory of Hef Ferguson-David George In Memory of Tom Lauterbach-Harold Whitmore In Memory of Bill Jones-Anonymous Legend: * - Multiple contributions § - Visitor Donation + - in memory of Past Cmdr. Tom Lauterbach
THE NEXT LONGSTREET MEETING WILL BE SEPTEMBER 19, 2006
THROUGH NOVEMBER 30 "Art of the Confederacy" at the Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond. Wonderful wartime and postwar sketches, paintings, water colors, photos and p.o.w. art. $7 adults, $6 seniors, $3 students over age 6. for info: 649-1861, www.moc.org THROUGH 2006 Confederate navy exhibit. various types of ships, commanders, naval technology, paintings, artifacts at the Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond. for info: 649-1861, www.moc.org SEPTEMBER 9 Two-hour Brandy Station Battlefield Tour of Buford Knoll and Yew Ridge. Leaves from Graffiti House, 10:00 a.m. No advance registration required, $5 over age 12. For info: (547) 4106, email@example.com or www.brandystationfoundation.com SEPTEMBER 22-24 143rd Anniversary of the Battle Of Stanardsville. Battles Saturday and Sunday, night artillery fire, buggy rides, Civil War Ball, children's camp and school for youngster soldier, ladies tea, music. Admission $5 per day, $8 weekend (advance sales.), $7 or $12 at gate. Sponsored by the Greene County Development Authority. For info: (434)985-6663; www.greenva.com SEPTEMBER 23 Two-hour Brandy Station Battlefield Tour of Beverly Ford and St. James Church, from Graffiti House, Brandy Station, 10:00 a.m. No reservation required. $5 over age 12. Sponsored by Brandy Station Foundation. For info: (540) 547-4106, firstname.lastname@example.org or www.brandystationfoundation.com SEPTEMBER 28 11th Annual Bottimore Lecture: "Confederate Emancipation" by Professor Bruce Levine at Keller Hall, University of Richmond Campus, Richmond. 7:30 p.m. Cosponsored by The Museum of the Confederacy and The University of Richmond. No charge, reservations required. For info, reservations: (804)649-1861, Ext. 28 SEPTEMBER 30 Bus tour: "Lee's Retreat" after the Siege of Petersburg. Leaving from Petersburg. Sites where fighting took place between Petersburg and Appomattox C.H., such as Sailor's Creek and Sutherland Station. Sponsored by Petersburg National Battlefield. For info: Tracy Chernault (804) 265-8244 SEPTEMBER 30 Magnolia and Memories Southern Ball at the Virginia Beach Resort Hotel and Conference Center. Social hour: 5.00 p.m., buffet dinner: 6.00 p.m. dance to period music: 7:15-10.00 p.m. Period dress requested. $50 per person pre-paid registration required. Proceeds to fund the completion of the Confederate monument with a Confederate Soldier in Elmwood Cemetery, Norfolk. Sponsored by Pickett-Buchanan Chapter 21, United Daughters of the Confederacy. For information and reservations, Mrs. Roland Lewis (757) 853-4663 OCTOBER 6-8 North-South Skirmish Association 114th National Competition near Winchester. Uniformed competitors in member units competing with muskets, carbines, breech-loading rifles, revolvers, mortars and cannon. Largest Civil War live-fire event in the country. Free admission, sutlers, food. For info: email@example.com; www.n-ssa.org
WILLIAM WHEELER JONES, SR. 1905-2006 William Wheeler Jones, Senior, 91, of Richmond, passed away Sunday, August 20, 2006. He is survived by his wife of 60 years, Florence W. Jones; two daughters, Susan Case and husband, John of Midlothian and Carol Cardwell and husband, Richard of Richmond; son, W. Wheeler Jones, Jr. and wife Cynthia of York, South Carolina; eight grandchildren, three great-grandchildren and many nieces and nephews. Billy served as a Marine in the Pacific Theater during World War II. He was a proud alumnus of The McGuire School in Richmond and spent his entire working career at Home Beneficial Life Insurance Company. "Death is only an old door set in a garden wall." Nancy Byrd Turner
On September 13, 1862, the following order of General Lee's fell into the hands of General McClellan. It had been picked up by Private Mitchell of the 27th Indiana at Frederick, Maryland and immediately rushed to General McClellan. It supposedly had been wrapped around three cigars! "Special Orders No. 191. Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, September 9, 1862 The army will resume its march to-morrow, taking the Hagerstown Road. General Jackson's command will form the advance, and, after passing Middletown, with such portions as he may select, take the route towards Sharpsburg, cross the Potomac at the most convenient point, and, by Friday night, take the possession of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, capture such of the enemy as may be at Martinsburg, and intercept such as may attempt to escape from Harper's Ferry. General Longstreet's command will pursue the same road as far as Boonsboro, where it will halt with the reserve, supply and baggage trains of the army. General McLaws, with his own division and that of General R. H. Anderson, will follow General Longstreet; on reaching Middletown, he will take the route to Harper's Ferry, and, by Friday morning, possess himself of the Maryland heights, and endeavor to capture the enemy at Harper's Ferry and vicinity. General Walker, with his division,, after accomplishing the object in which he is now engaged, will cross the Potomac at Cheek's ford, ascend its right bank to Lovettsville, take possession of Loudon heights, if practicable, by Friday morning; Key's ford on his left, and the road between the end of the mountain and the Potomac on the right. He will as far as practicable, co-operate with General McLaws and General Jackson in intercepting the retreat of the enemy. General D. H. Hill's division will form the rear guard of the army, pursuing the road taken by the main body. The reserve artillery, ordnance, and supply trains, &c., will precede General Hill. General Stuart will detach a squadron of cavalry to accompany the command of Generals Longstreet and McLaws, and, with the main body of the cavalry, will cover the route of the army, and bring up all stragglers that may have been left behind. The commands of General Jackson, McLaws and Walker, after accomplishing the objects for which they have been detached, will join the main body of the army at Boonsboro or Hagerstown. Each regiment on the march will habitually carry its axes in the regimental ordnance wagons, for use of the men in their encampments, to procure wood &c. By command of General R. E. Lee. R.H. Chilton, Assistant Adjutant General." When McClellan received Lee's order, he immediately ordered his troops forward and forced Turner's Gap and Crampton's Gap, going on to Second Bull Run and Antietam. Lee learned the next day that McClellan had obtained a copy of his order, but it is unknown what changes he made in his plans. The Historian of the Army of Northern Virginia, Colonel Allen stated that Lee said later, in 1868, that "Had the lost dispatch not been lost, I would have had all my troops reconcentrated on the Maryland side, stragglers up, men rested, and intended then to attack McClellan hoping the best results from the state of my troops and those of the enemy."
The following letter from Waite Rawles appeared in the Summer 2006 issue of The Museum of the Confederacy Magazine. Dear Friends, In my two and a half years at the helm of the Museum of the Confederacy, this is my most important letter to you. I have said before that, when the going gets tough, the tough get going. Well, the going is now very tough. This letter outlines what we are doing. Let me start with an overview of our position and then elaborate on the details. As we have told you previously, we requested $700,000 in grants from the Commonwealth of Virginia to cover our operating deficit and to finance an independent study of our situation by outside experts. We were awarded a grant from the state of only $50,000 on July 1st. Despite this setback, our independent study is proceeding (please be sure to read the interview with Nick Muller on page 6), and the Executive Committee of your Board of Trustees heard its first interim report in mid-July. We have a number of tough long-term decisions before us, and we have already made some tough immediate decisions. Let me elaborate on each of these points. The Museum's leadership has worked hard for two years now on our planning process, beginning when the hospital's announcement of their expansion made it clear to us that our site was being completely compromised as a viable museum location. Knowing that we represent a public asset we approached the state and requested that it "study" our situation fully-before we asked for any financial assistance. The General Assembly's study concluded last November and stated that we represent one of the state's and country's greatest assets. Further, our financial problems were "largely of the Commonwealth's making" and that the state should, therefore, cover our annual operating deficit for one year and cover the cost of an independent analysis of our future options. At the January session of Virginia's General Assembly, we requested $700,000 -$500,000 to cover our estimated deficit and $200,000 to cover the cost of the study-all consistent with the conclusion of their own recommendations. At our June Board meeting, ard approved our budget, which was in line with those previous estimates. In Virginia, the General Assembly is charged to produce a budget in March in time for a July 1st implementation, but it ended its session without a budget accord. On-again, off-again discussions led to a mad scramble in mid-June to construct a budget in order to avoid a shut-down of government functions on July 1st. We had done our job. Legislators across the board supported us. Republicans and Democrats. Liberals and Conservatives. Blacks and Whites. But, in its rush to deadline, the General Assembly dropped the ball, and a grant of only $50,000 was made. In spite of our following correct procedures and having much assurance that our request would be overwhelmingly approved, the state faltered and did not live up to its responsibility. This grant is a significant disappointment, and we could spend valuable time determining who is to blame. Instead, we are facing up to reality and dealing with the situation by making some painful short-term decisions. Above all else, we are doing everything in our power to protect the collection and to minimize the negative effects on our visitors and members. But we must act now to raise emergency revenues and cut all non-essential expenses. There are many measures being taken behind the scenes to accomplish this goal. As I write this letter, the Board is hard at work on the former-contacting some of our best supporters for emergency funding. On the latter, I must announce a few decisions: "The Museum of the Confederacy has been open 362 days a year for most of the last 110 years. But, effective from Labor Day to Memorial Day, the Museum and the White House will be closed to the public one day a week. We will close on Wednesdays, traditionally our lightest day for visitors. We will close the White House for public tours for several months a year-starting in January 2007. We will indefinitely postpone mounting all new exhibits, except for an exhibit on Virginia in the Confederacy, 1861-1865,which has been privately funded by the Lee-Jackson Educational Foundation. "The Confederate Navy" exhibit will not end this December but will continue into the future. Long time members will remember that there was a 30% cut in staff in 2002, and we will cut an additional 10% of staff now (through attrition). The independent consulting budget has been cut by over 50%, representing the single largest savings. The study is critical to our long term viability and cannot be eliminated, but we are forced to cut down markedly in several vital areas, especially the much-desired market research portion. The study will nevertheless remain a valid and solid step toward our future. Our Magazine has been a great success with everyone, but we will cut it from four issues per year to three. (This is another good excuse for you to make sure that we have your e-mail address.) What comes next? The independent consultants will meet with the Executive Committee in September and the full Board at an all day retreat later in the month. A great deal of their work will be revealed to members shortly after. Some of their conclusions, however, will necessitate further negotiations with public or private parties and will require some confidentiality for now. We have consistently maintained that we have three basic options: (1) stay here, (2) split the museum and White House by moving only the collection to a new museum site, or (3) move both the collection and White House to a new site. From the consultant's work to date, it does not appear that the current site is viable for the museum, so work continues to determine the impact of a move and an appropriate location. I want to address one issue very specifically-our collection. The depth and importance of our collection, its historic legacy and provenance, and its importance to the modern mission of education-set it apart from all others. More than anything else, we all-staff, board and members-are fiduciaries of the collection. We owe it to the donors-whether a hundred years ago or last week-to preserve and exhibit the artifacts. The collection is at risk today. If we cannot afford to continue and preserve and exhibit the artifacts, the collection could be broken up and dispersed to other locations and collections. And future generations would be denied the benefits of its staying together, unified with its legacy. We all saw the public outcry recently when the papers of Doctor Martin Luther King, Jr. were put up for sale. It would have been a tragedy if the sale had gone forward. It likewise would be a great tragedy for historic preservation if we were ever forced to consider similar actions. That possibility remains our absolute last resort. In summary, these are truly difficult times for The Museum of the Confederacy. The Board and the staff are working as hard as possible to protect our collection, our mission and our legacy. We know that we are not a "sinking ship"-we will succeed in the face of adversity. We know that our decisions will not please every single person in our constituency; but, if there ever was a time when your support is needed-emotionally and financially, it is now. As I pointed out in my last letter, we learn from studying the history of the Confederacy that success came when debate about strategy ended before the attack began. We will soon move from strategy to tactics, from planning to implementation. If we are to succeed, we need your support and are confident that you will be there when the command is given, "Shoulder arms. Forward march." I am your most obedient servant, S. Waite Rawls, III The current state of affairs. The White House is at the upper right!
We must, as Longstreet Camp compatriots, consider what we can do individually or collectively to help the Museum to survive. Whether it be financial help or communicating to our Governor and our legislators our concern over this patently unfair treatment of the Museum by the Commonwealth or both, we must become involved!Dave George Editor